- wasted time
- poor decisions
- inferior talent
Thursday, January 15, 2015
Sunday, December 14, 2014
Parasites in Koi ponds can often cause serious problems for the Koi, and hobbyist alike. By this I mean, that the Koi have the parasite problem, and the hobbyist has the problem of curing it! Knowing which parasite or parasites are present is essential for the correct remedy.
In order to be able to control levels of Koi parasites in ponds, it is necessary to understand something of their life cycles. Understanding how they reproduce, various life stages are, can allow us an opportunity to seriously reduce their numbers.
Low oxygen levels are more likely to prevail in summertime, when temperatures are higher, although some treatments for parasites can target algae and pond debris as part of the chemical reaction aimed at the parasites, and in so doing, create oxygen shortages.
It is wise to increase aeration in the pond before, during and after any medications are used. As fish consume approximately four times more oxygen after feeding, it is best that food is withheld for the duration of any treatment.
Simply overfeeding the fish can cause nitrite levels to rise above normal levels, or it can happen when the stocking level is in excess of that which the biological filter can cope with. Low oxygen levels and low KH frequently lead to nitrite levels rising. The whole pond system relies upon oxygen to function and adequate resources of calcium carbonate are essential to the bacterial activity of the filter.
Nitrate is the end product of the biological filter function and can be controlled by regular water changes. Test kits are available for measuring all the water parameters mentioned.
Frequent parasite problems would tend to suggest that the environmental factors within the pond are less than ideal. Fish living in a pond with good water parameters are able to cope with the small levels of parasites, which are often present in small numbers in perfectly healthy ponds.
Some keepers take the prophylactic approach: they rid the pond of any undue organic waste, and rid the Koi of as many parasites as possible in the late autumn when temperatures are still above 59*.
- Fish remains alone and ceases to be a sociable shoal fish.
- Fish jumping or scraping against pond side and floor.
- Fish refuses to feed.
- Fish breathes heavily, opening and closing of the mouth and gills.
If this is seen to happen, it is possible to treat an individual by way of a salt bath. Seawater contains about 3% salt. The bodies of freshwater parasites contain about 0.5% salt solution. Osmosis is a simple physics fact which guaranties that water will always tend to go towards an area of high salt concentration. In a salt bath of water of 3% solution, the parasites, being simpler creatures than the fish, can have the fluids withdrawn from their bodies by this difference in salt concentration. The same laws of osmosis exist for the fish so care and continuous observation of the fish during this treatment is essential. Once the fish begins to lie over on its side in a similar manner to that which occurs when a fish is anesthetized, it should be removed from this salt bath and placed into another container to recuperate. A maximum of two minutes is advised for this treatment which can be repeated if necessary a short time later.
An improvement in the disposition of a fish after this treatment can suggest that parasites may be the problem.
Let's look at some of the most common bugs..............
Argulus another crustacean parasite, round and up to 1cm wide. They have a sucker to hold on to the Koi with needle-like mouth parts which they stick into the Koi and inject a toxin. This causes intense irritation to the Koi and they scratch and jump and can cause bacterial infection. If they infect the gills they cause severe damage and often death.
Like other flatworms, Monogenea have no true body cavity (coelom). They have a simple digestive system consisting of a mouth opening with a muscular pharynx and an intestine with no terminal opening (anus). Generally, they also are hermaphroditic with functional reproductive organs of both sexes occurring in one individual. Most species are oviparous but a few are viviparous. Monogenea are Platyhelminthes and therefore are among the lowest invertebrates to possess three embryonic germ layers—endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. In addition, they have a head region that contains concentrated sense organs and nervous tissue (brain). Treatment: Praziquantel as Prolonged immersion 10 g to each 100 gal.
Sudden swelling: A bacterial infection will cause internal bleeding. Slow swelling: Growing tumors, or even parasites, in the fish may cause it to swell. Slow swelling: Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Highly contagious! Bacterial dropsy is infectious so treat with an anti bacterial remedy and if possible isolate affected Koi.
Affected Koi often exhibit classic signs of irritation and flash, jump or rub themselves against objects in the pond in an attempt to rid themselves of their attackers. Flukes are not visible with the naked eye. When viewed under a microscope, the parasites are clearly visible as nearly transparent and worm like, and the hooks are clearly visible. Flukes are a bit like fleas on dogs and cats and it is common to see one or two on a slide as a healthy Koi can control parasite numbers and their mucus helps prevent the parasite moving. Treatment is therefore only necessary if flukes are seen in numbers.
Recommended treatment: Praziquantel follow up with BGDX
This virus is much less damaging than KHV and currently is very rare in the . SVC produces symptoms typical of those seen with many infections and can include dropsy, hemorrhages and/ or darkening of the skin.
SVC is classified as a "reportable" disease, so a confirmed diagnosis can lead to heavy handed federal government involvement.
Recommended treatments are Potassium Permanganate or ProForm-C. Follow up with BGDX
A severe outbreak of parasites requires treatment. However, in any disease outbreak it is essential to identify the prime cause. I hate to think how many Koi deaths have occurred because of repeated and unsuccessful treatments for parasites without knowing cause of them, which is usually an environmental factor.
Wednesday, December 3, 2014
What is an ORP meter?
An ORP meter measures the Oxidation or Reduction Potential of the water. This is a direct measure of pollution index of the water, since more pollution gives a lower ORP reading. As described by Chris Walster, a veterinarian at the Island Veterinary Clinic in Staffordshire, England, in the Summer 97 issue of Koi Health Quarterly, Put simply, ORP is a measure of pollution.
Quick Summary of ORP levels as applied to koi ponds:
At readings of below 150, significant improvements to the filtration of the pond should be made as soon as possible to avoid massive fish health problems.
At readings between 150 to 200, fish health will not be marginal, with green water and slime algae a usual occurrence, especially in the absence of UV lights.
At readings between 200 to 250, fish health will usually be okay, but not optimum, and stringy algae or blanket weed will normally be a problem.
Readings between 250 and 400 reflect good to superb water quality, and prevention of fish health problems by water excellent water quality control. The higher end of this range is preferred over the lower end for dependably good fish health and fast fish growth.
Readings between 400 and 450 reflect the use of either potassium permanganate or ozone to increase water quality by addition of a chemical oxidant to the pond to oxidize the various dissolved organic compounds and solid waste materials on the pond bottoms and in the filter systems. Readings in this range usually do not harm the useful bacteria in biofilters if the length of time is less than 30 minutes in this range.
Readings between 475 and 550 reflect active potassium permanganate levels which should kill fish parasites without harming the fish, and quickly oxidize pollutants, provided the fish exposure is only a few hours per week. Water with ORP in this range should not be circulated in biofilters since the useful bacteria may be oxidized significantly.
Readings between 550 and 600 should not be continued for more than 15 minutes because of likely damage to the gills of fish.
Water with readings above 700 will sterilize a system of all life forms in about 10 to 15 minutes.
Things that increase ORP readings and improve water quality:
- Flow rates. Pond turn over at 1.5 hours min. The faster the better for higher ORP readings.
- Aeration, water falls, TTs, spray bars etc. the more the better.
- More efficient mechanical filtration, with frequent cleanouts or solid dumps, increase ORP readings.
- Temperature. Cooler temps will generally give a higher orp reading as there is a higher level of dissolved oxygen.
- Fish load..... Lower fish loads give higher ORP readings.
- Heavy feeding gives lower ORP readings.
- System Maintenance. Clean out filters. Back wash beads filter, rinse filter media in submerged filters.
- Dead Spots...... Find and eliminate dead spots in pond with low flow since this can accumulate solids wastes which lower ORP readings.
- Add biofiltration capacity to increase ORP.
Aeration of the water in waterfalls, or with air stones, or with trickle tower filters increase the ORP level of the water by providing more oxygen to oxidize the organic pollutants such as fish poop.
Higher recirculation flow rates increase the ORP levels of the water in various ways. Better solids removal, more aeration, better biofiltration all go with increased water turnover rates.
Using activated carbon to remove DOC (Dissolved Organic Carbon) increases the ORP levels of the water by removal of pollutants from the water. Here the typical charge is 3 pounds of activated carbon per 1000 gallons, changed out with fresh carbon each 3 months. The usual charge is put into mesh bags, laundry bags for example, some place in the filtration system or the waterfall system or stream system. Or even in the actual pond itself.
More biofiltration increases the ORP value of the pond. Trickle tower biofilters do this better by providing a higher level of oxygen to the aerobic (oxygen loving) bacteria which do the biofiltration. But well designed submerged media filters can also deliver superb water quality with high ORP readings.
Addition of low levels of potassium permanganate to increase the ORP reading to the range between 300 and 450 has been beneficial to ponders who have filtration systems which do not automatically maintain water quality in those ORP ranges as a temporary emergency fix of a fish health problem.
Some ponds use ozone injection with on line ORP controllers to maintain ORP levels at a narrow desired range.
|This pond was designed by Koi Depot San Diego in 1998 this picture is from 3 yrs ago. Redox readings are at 370 mv.|
Saturday, March 29, 2014
Life is Short, Enjoy Koi!
increased goals and expectations. By simply increasing the bio filtration and adding aeration to the pond, this creates better water quality for the inhabitants such as koi, goldfish, turtles, minnows and algae eaters. The pond maintenance will remain the same with simple weekly maintenance; minimal quarterly maintenance and an annual
draining is recommended to thin aquatic plants and thoroughly clean the gravel bed.
bio-filter, run through a UV clarifier and returned to the pond. The Dedicated Koi Pond requires 15 to 30 minutes of maintenance each week and does not require an annual draining for deep cleaning.
ROUND gravel covering the top of the suction grid by approximately 2". All ends of the manifold will be
capped and each cap will have one 3/8" hole drilled at the bottom side of the cap.
frame the water’s edge. Notice the excavation is different than all the other excavation details with a
curved bottom wall transition that tapers towards a bottom drain. This detail may not be necessary in all
soil conditions and may not be adequate in sandy conditions or depths greater than 48".
installing at the bottom of the shelf. We will be pumping water into the bottom of the plant shelf and upflow water through the gravel bed and aquatic plant roots to greatly improve your pond’s filtration capacity. The manifold assembly we build out similar to the Under Gravel Suction Grid Detail D. We recommend using ROUND ornamental gravel no smaller than 3/8" and no larger than 3/4". The depth of the gravel bed should be a minimum of 8" and maximum of 12".
this pond. The suction grid will typically be built on location so it can be customized to the shape of your pond’s floor.
Wednesday, January 8, 2014
What she recommends is to do injections IM there can be drawbacks on doing IM but to date have not had any problems with welts. Below is a description of the 3 ways to inject.
The IM injection is performed with similar needle angle and direction, but it is in the muscular tissue along and to the side of the dorsal fin (see Drawing 2). With a muscular injection, you must keep the needle in the muscle tissue and press the plunger as you with draw the needle giving room for the fluid to enter. Because of this, the needle must be inserted deeply.
What we recommend is to inject on one side and then move to the opposite side for next injection. Start toward backside and on each rotation move up a bit for the next injection. We have found by the 3rd or 4th injection along with topical treatment you can start to see improving results.
We found that by using a 30" Smart Koi Net that we had less stress and a much easier time holding and injecting Koi. You can leave Koi submersed in water without having to remove them to inject. You can also do the topical treatment at the same time and then release back to pond or QT.
We find it best to clean the open ulcer the first 2-3 days of injections, after that we just use the ointment and denture powder only without scrubbing wound. The reason we don't after the first few days is we do not want to destroy any tissue that is regenerating over ulcer. We use hydro peroxide with a cotton swab to clean and remove any dead tissue and clean under the layer of scales around wound. After doing that we apply Debride is a medicated ointment or Panalog from your vet.
Panolog (Only available through Vet) is a formulation that contains medications with anti-puritic, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties.The ointment provides relief against the symptoms of variety of ear and skin infections that are perilous for dogs and cats. We also use Tricide Neo® as topical powder for anti-bacterial to the open ulcer We then use denture powder to apply over ointment or Tricide-Neo to seal it it.
Until then "Happy Ponding" from "Koiman"
Sunday, December 22, 2013
For some of us warmer weather (So Cal) is not to far off as we have a short winter like temperatures here. No matter what area or zone your in one should have a game plan if you should have a break out. This is Part One of a series on this subject of Koi Health and how to properly deal with it and most of all "How to take steps to reduce or prevent it a out break"
- Do you make house calls?
- Can you provide a C/S service?
- Do you work with any local vets?
- What do you recommend for the first step in treatment?
- Do you scope/check Koi for parasites?
- Cotton balls/ Q-tips
- Povidone Iodine 10%
- Panalog medicated ointment (Vet)
- DeBride medicated ointment
- Wound bandage product (Denture Powder we find works great)
|Koi Health Care Items Check List|
|□||Debride Medicated Ointment|
|□||Clove Oil or MS-222|
|□||Povidone Iodine 10%|
|□||Baytril (Prescribed by Vet) Long shelf life|
|□||Microscope (Slips/Glass Slides)|
|□||A Gram Scale|
|□||Syringes ( 5/8" 25 gauge / Diabetic)|
|□||Digital Thermometer/Floating Type|
|□||A Q-tank (Aeration/Heater/Filter)|
|□||Net to cover Q-Tank|
|□||Net & Tub for Q-Tank Only|
|□||Dr. Eric Johnson Koi Health & Disease|
|□||AKCA Guide to Koi Health|
We will go into proper follow up wound treatment while your doing your injections in "Part Two" of :
Treatment Plan for “Aeromonas hydrophila”
Until then "Happy Ponding" from "Koiman"